Sex botchat fee

23-Jan-2015 16:53 by 10 Comments

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The cost was first described in mathematical terms by John Maynard Smith.He imagined an asexual mutant arising in a sexual population, half of which comprises males that cannot themselves produce offspring.

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The maintenance of sexual reproduction in a highly competitive world has long been one of the major mysteries of biology given that asexual reproduction can reproduce much more quickly because 50% of offspring from sexual reproduction are males, unable to produce offspring themselves.

However, research published in 2015 indicates that sexual selection can explain the persistence of sexual reproduction in animals.

In an asexual species, each member of the population is capable of bearing young.

This implies that an asexual population has an intrinsic capacity to grow more rapidly with each generation.

Females may eat males after mating, males may be much smaller or rarer, or males may help raise offspring.

Some species avoid the cost of 50% of sexual reproduction, although they have "sex" (in the sense of genetic recombination).

Recombination supplies two fault-tolerance mechanisms at the molecular level: recombinational DNA repair (promoted during meiosis because homologous chromosomes pair at that time) and complementation (also known as heterosis, hybrid vigor or masking of mutations). Michod - have suggested several explanations for how a vast array of different living species maintain sexual reproduction.

The issue features in the writings of Aristotle, and modern philosophical-scientific thinking on the problem dates from at least Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) in the 18th century. Williams, Harris Bernstein, Carol Bernstein, Michael M. Some questions biologists have attempted to answer include: This diagram illustrates the twofold cost of sex.

Since hypotheses for the origins of sex are difficult to test experimentally (outside of Evolutionary computation), most current work has focused on the maintenance of sexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction must offer significant fitness advantages to a species because despite the two-fold cost of sex, it dominates among multicellular forms of life, implying that the fitness of offspring produced outweighs the costs.

In these species (e.g., bacteria, ciliates, dinoflagellates and diatoms), "sex" and reproduction occurs separately. Williams gave an example based around the elm tree.