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The city's population grew above 200,000 prior to the 1988 Spitak earthquake, when it was devastated.As of the 2011 census, the city had a population of 121,976, down from 150,917 reported at the 2001 census.
After 2 centuries of Islamic rule over Armenia, the Bagratids declared independence in 885 establishing the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia.
In 1837 Russian Tsar Nicholas I arrived in Gyumri and changed the name into Alexandropol.
The name was chosen in honour of Tsar Nicholas I's wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia, who had changed her name to Alexandra Fyodorovna after converting to Orthodox Christianity.
The Pahlavunis had a great contribution in the progress of Shirak with the foundation of many fortresses, monastic complexes, educational institutions, etc.
After the fall of Armenia to the Byzantine Empire in 1045 and later to the Seljuk invaders in 1064.
According to the Armeian historian Thomas of Metsoph, although the Kara Koyunlu levied heavy taxes against the Armenians, the early years of their rule were relatively peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place.
Soon after in 1502, Kumayri became part of the newly formed Erivan Beglarbegi, a new administrative territory of Iran formed by the Safavids.Kumayri entered e new era of growth and progress, particularly when the nearby city of Ani became the capital of the kingdom in 961.By the second half of the 10th century, Kumayri was under the influence of the Armenian Pahlavuni family, who were descendents of the Kamsarakans.During the first half of the 18th century, Kumayri became part of the Erivan Khanate under the rule of the Afsharid dynasty and later under the Qajar dynasty of Persia.In June 1804, the Russian forces controlled over Shirak region at the beginning of the Russo-Persian War of 18.After the Mongols captured Ani in 1236, Armenia turned into a Mongol protectorate as part of the Ilkhanate, and the Zakarids became vassals to the Mongols.