Radiocarbon dating the old stables
Radiocarbon dating the old stables - Malay datin free sex
Accompanying mankind since the dawn of civilization, cattle became in various environments an integral part of human society.By supplying milk, meat and hides and by plowing the fields , they have become the most important domestic animal species.
We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources.Archaeological data indicate that taurine cattle have been domesticated between 10,300–10,800 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, most probably on the western Turkish-Syrian border (Figure 5) [18,19].The size, shape or gender ratios allow a differentiation of fossil remains from wild and domestic cattle [20,21].This huge and reputedly fierce species has been extinct since 1627, when the last animal died in Poland.Only few contemporary pictures of aurochs exist (Figure 3), but skeletal remains allow reconstructing its morphology (Figure 4).Previously, we have described the bovine breeds and their nomenclature, classification and relevance for conservation [7,8,9].
To contribute to a rational evaluation of conservation values of existing breeds and populations, we here consider the diversity of cattle in a historical context.Modern cattle populations in Southwest Asia still have high haplotype diversity with appreciable frequencies of haplogroups T, T1, T2 and T3 [5,23,24].Around 2000 years after the taurine domestication, zebu was domesticated in the Indus Valley at the edge of the Indian Desert [5,34].In addition, isotope analysis of organic material revealed traces of milk in excavated pottery, indicating the storage of dairy products already 9000 BP .Bayesian analysis of 15 mt DNA sequences from Neolithic to Iron Age Iranian cattle yielded an estimate of around 80 female aurochs being the maternal ancestors of almost all present day taurine cattle .The subspecies in India were the ancestors of taurine and zebu cattle, respectively.