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From 1889 a circle was added over the lines – inside which was a crown between the curved words Royal Copenhagen. 1890, export ware featured a small crown over tiny waves over the word Denmark (spelled in English) in a circle over three larger waves. Between 18 a variation of the export mark was used without the circle and the tiny waves, however these are easy to spot as this is the only period in which DANMARK, the Danish word for Denmark, was used.The trademark with the three waves has had changes through the years.This makes it possible to tell the age of each piece of porcelain by Royal Copenhagen.1923 had two variant marks – one an ornate crown over waves with no text, the other the crown that was used in the post 1923 mark, but over the word Denmark, over the waves.The printed mark in the bottom picture has been in use with subtle variations since 1923 the principle difference between this and the pre 1923 mark is the combination of the factory name and the country of origin – again spelled in the English way as Denmark.All Royal Copenhagen marks that include text are printed in capitals in a non-serif font.
Dating indicators were first added to the Royal Copenhagen mark in 1935.
May 1775 it was decided that the trademark/brand/factory stamp should consist of three wavy lines (waves), symbolizing the three waterways through Denmark; the Sound and the two belts (the Sound (Oresund)), the Great Belt and the Little Belt).
The trademark has been used with little variations ever since the founding and every single piece of porcelain produced by Royal Copenhagen has been stamped with the three waves.
Royal Copenhagen has used the three wavy water lines to identify their porcelain since it started in 1775 – Early pieces frequently include a dot in front of the waves.
The mark was not very consistently drawn, often with quite flat waves that look quite rushed- presumably each workman had their own slight variant until about 1820.
In the Collector's Guide by Caroline & Nick Pope you will find a list of the known painters with number-signature and their working period at Royal Copenhagen. The three towers in the hallmark come from the City of Copenhagen's Coat of Arms.